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Other Health Issues

Below you will find more information on possible health concerns you may have.

Cervical Cancer

Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse. There are many different types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. However, only certain strains of HPV actually lead to cervical cancer. (Other strains may cause genital warts.)

Other risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Having sex at an early age
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual partners who have multiple partners or who participate in high-risk sexual activities
  • Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
  • Weakened immune system


Hepatitis is a term that is used to describe inflammation of the liver. This can occur for a number of reasons, and in fact there are seven types of hepatitis that can affect humans.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus. This virus spreads easily between people from everyday contact of through some forms of sexual contact. It causes the liver to swell and can make the person very unwell with general symptoms of tiredness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and a lack of appetite. Fortunately this type of hepatitis will normally clear up on its own as long as the person stays hydrated and rests. In the UK most children are vaccinated against the virus before they start nursery though it is still common in civilisations with poor sanitation.

Hepatitis B

This form of hepatitis is potentially very dangerous and can cause severe liver disease. It is passed between people through exchange of body fluids and during childbirth. Symptoms can vary to none at all to yellowing of the skin, tiredness and aching in the joints and muscles, pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting and changes in appetite. Without treatment the damage to the liver can be fatal. Those who are most at risk can receive a vaccination against the disease; alternatively do not share needles, razors, and always use condoms.

Hepatitis C

Spread through contact with infected blood and blood products, hepatitis C can affect the liver and cause similar symptoms to those with hepatitis B but may not present with any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D can only occur in those who are hepatitis B positive. It is not a consequence of the hepatitis B but can only be contracted by those who are hep B positive. It is usually transmitted from blood and blood products, though it is possible to contract it through other methods but this is rare. When hep D and hep B are both active and present the liver can become severely damaged, sometimes permanently.

Hepatitis E

This form of hepatitis causes liver damage but normally the body will recover from it. It is very dangerous in pregnancy, particularly the early stages. It is normally contracted through exposure to contaminated food products and water, or because of poor hygiene and sanitation. Symptoms can include aching, tiredness, nausea, gastric disturbances and abdominal pain.

Toxic Hepatitis

This form of hepatitis occurs in those who have exposed their liver to some sort of toxin or poison. The most common form of toxic hepatitis is caused by overdose of drugs such as paracetamol. Often the damage is so severe from these exposures that permanent damage can occur.

Treating Hepatitis

The treatment for hepatitis varies between the types. Often the best actions to take are to drink plenty of water and to ensure that you are not having unprotected sex, sharing needles or knowingly putting others at risk by not informing of your hepatitis status. It is possible to receive a vaccination against many of the types of hepatitis but if it is contracted your healthcare provider may suggest something called Interferon which can be used to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis D.Toxic hepatitis can sometimes be treated depending on the poison that the liver was exposed to. If a person has taken a paracetamol overdose and informs their healthcare provider as soon as possible, there is an antidote available and the success of the drug will depend on blood results that are taken at different stages after administration.

Other Issues

Disclaimer:  All content within Women's Work (Derbyshire) Ltd Health & Wellbeing pages are provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional.  Women's Work (Derbyshire) Ltd is not responsible or liable for any diagnosis made by a user based on the content of the Women's Work (Derbyshire) Ltd Health & Wellbeing pages. Women's Work (Derbyshire) Ltd is not liable for the contents of any external internet sites listed, nor does it endorse any commercial product or service mentioned or advised on any of the sites. Always consult your own GP if you're in any way concerned about your health.

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